from http://www.rhi.hi.is/~eybjorn/mjo.html

   Actually there are three versions of the Rydberg Edda:

   1. The earliest one seems to be SEJRSSVĆRDET (SWORD OF VICTORY), 
   published in Danish in 1885. This is a prototype, containing some
   interesting variants.
   2. FÄDERNAS GUDASAGA (MYTHIC SAGA OF THE ANCESTORS), published in
   Swedish in 1887. This is Rydberg's Edda proper, including a complete,
   annotated index of proper names.
   3. The synopsis (roughly translated here) contained in Vol. 2 of
   UNDERSÖKNINGAR I GERMANISK MYTOLOGI (REASEARCHES IN TEUTONIC
   MYTHOLOGY), published in Swedish in 1889. Although only a very 
   concise synopsis, it is basically identical to the 1887 version.
   The most interesting variants have to do with the timing of the
   three deaths of Gullveig.

   
   
   STRUCTURE:

   I    (1-8)     CREATION OF THE WORLD

   II   (9-14)    PRIMAL AGE OF PEACE   

   III  (15-23)   THE SWITCH FROM PEACE TO WAR

   IV a (24-62)   AGE OF WAR - before Fimbul-winter
      b (63-84)   AGE OF WAR - Fimbul-winter
      c (85-95)   AGE OF WAR - Fimbul-winter finishes
      d (96-106)  AGE OF WAR - Svipdagur and the Sword of Revenge
      e 107-148)  AGE OF WAR - War between Ćsir and Vanir

   V    (149)     HISTORICAL TIME
   
   VI   (150-152) RAGNARÖK
   VII  (153-154) RENEWAL OF THE WORLD

   ----------------------------------------------------------------------
   Please note: As the plot thickens, and the various sub-epics are born,
   a lot of the different story-lines are taking place at the same time.
   Where I think it is necessary I've included some pointers to help the
   reader. So if you see "(go to 68)", this means that the current story
   is taken up again in section 68.
   ----------------------------------------------------------------------

   I. CREATION OF THE WORLD

   1) GINNUNGAGAP (Void). THE THREE WELLS. YGGDRASILL (World Tree).
 
   There was a beginning to the world. Three forces were at work in
   the primeval emptiness of Ginnungagap: the forces of Cold,
   Heat, and Creative Power, which sprang up from three Wells, the
   sources of which are unknown and hidden. After creation has taken
   place these Wells have their place in the World, their names being:
   Hvergelmir, Urđarbrunnur, Mímisbrunnur. To the north of Ginnungagap
   space was enveloped in an icy mist, which rose from Hvergelmir, but
   to the south warmth welled up from Urđarbrunnur. The elements were
   formed by the clashing of Cold and Heat in Ginnungagap. In the very
   middle of Ginnungagap was situated the Well of Creative Power, and
   in the unknown depths underneath it was the seed of Yggdrasill.

   2) PRIMAL BEINGS

   The first living creature which quickened in the Primal Void was the cow
   Auđhumla. She licked out of the primal rime-rocks the ancestor of the
   Gods, Búri, and by the four rivers of milk, which streamed forth from her
   udder she nourished the primeval Giant Ýmir, who was formed out of the
   elements. From Ýmir's limbs came the clan of the Giants: from his left
   armpit came that clan of Giants which is friendly to the Gods, among
   them Mímir, his sister Beisla, and the Norns. Ýmir's two feet begat on
   each other the monstrous clan of misshapen Hrímţursar (Frost-Giants).

   3) THE UNDERWORLD. BORR'S SONS.

   The Underworld, or Jörmungrund, was the first created world. Mímir, who
   is the original smith, there guards the Well of Creative Power, but the
   Well of Heat is guarded by the Norns, Urđur and her sisters. Borr, the
   son of Búri, took as wife Beisla, Mímir's sister. Their sons, Óđinn,
   Hćnir and Lóđurr are the ancestors of all the Gods.

   4) CREATION OF THE EARTH

   Yggdrasill grew to a great height, and was taken care of and watered
   by Mímir and the Norns of Fate. Miđgarđur (Middle-Earth) rests in
   the branches of Yggdrasill. There lived through long ages Ýmir and the
   vile offspring of his feet, the Frost-Giants.

   5) ÓĐINN'S SELF-SACRIFICE
   
   Óđinn, while still young and inexperienced, was determined to rule
   the earth, but realized that he would need help in order to get rid
   of the ghastly brood. He climbed Yggdrasill, dwelt there for nine
   nights without food and water, wounded with a spear, sacrificing
   himself to himself, praying for the power he needed. Mímir gave
   him a drink from the Well of Creation, and taught him runic poems
   and lays of might (fimbulţulur).

   6) THE FROST-GIANTS DEFEATED

   Óđinn and his brothers slaughtered Ýmir. The Frost-Giants drowned in
   his blood, and their souls migrated down into the northernmost part
   of the Underworld, the dark and foggy Niflhel. A few of the youngest
   Frost-Giants barely escaped, and crawled onto the beach of the
   northernmost part of the Earth, which is called Jötunheimur (Giants'
   World).

   7) THE WORLD MILL

   Mímir's craftsmen built a huge mill on top of Hvergelmir in the Under-
   world. The mill regulates the flowing of waters, revolves the dome of
   heaven, and grinds the flesh of Ýmir and his kinsmen into fertile soil.

   8) CREATION CONTINUES 

   The soil of Ýmir's flesh covers Middle-Earth, which Borr's sons raised
   out of the ocean of Ýmir's blood. The smiths, who built the mill, were
   created by Mímir and Durinn (Mímir's first son, the eldest of Dwarves)
   in accordance with the Gods' decree. Furthermore they created the
   heavens out of Ýmir's skull, mountains from his bones, etc. Also they
   crafted all of nature's adornments. Mímir's daughter, Night, and all
   her kinsmen were made Gods. The roads traveled by Day and Night, Sun
   and Moon were laid down. The Ćsir and the Vanir defined their separate
   roles. The Vanir preside over the regulation of the fixed processes of
   the world; the Ćsir watch and guard all of creation. The marvellous
   Ásgarđur was built for the Gods in the very top of the World-Tree. A
   bridge called Bifröst connects Ásgarđur to the Underworld.

   II. PRIMAL AGE OF PEACE

   9) CONFEDERATION OF PEACE

   All creatures formed a covenant of peace, and exchanged hostages. The
   Vanir gave Njörđur and his children, Freyr and Freyja, as hostages to
   the Ćsir. óđinn married Frigg, Njörđur's sister. Óđinn and Mímir
   exchanged pledges. Giant youngsters Gullveig and Loki were admitted
   to Ásgarđur. Gullveig became favoured by the Goddesses; Óđinn and Loki
   entered into sworn brotherhood. Óđinn sent his son Týr to be fostered
   by the giant Hymir, and his son Ţórr he sent to the giant Vingnir and
   his wife Hlóra.

   10) TREASURES OF THE GODS

   In Mímir's smithy, where his sons worked side by side with Ívaldi's
   sons, many precious treasures were crafted for the Gods. Mímir's sons
   made Brísingamen for Freyja, and a magical chess-board for all the Gods.
   Ívaldi's sons forged the spear Gungnir for Óđinn, the ship Skíđblađnir
   for Frey, and for Njörđur they crafted an axe which can break any lock
   and open any door. Most importantly Ívaldi's sons made for all the Ćsir
   the elixir vitae, which is preserved in Ásgarđur by their sister Iđunn.
   Njörđur sent his son Freyr to be fostered by the sons of Ívaldi.

   11) CREATION OF MAN 

   Now the world was finally created and regulated, but still there were
   no human beings to grace the beautiful Miđgarđur. Óđinn, Hćnir and 
   Lóđurr created the first human beings from two trees that grew on the
   seashore in Aurvanga-land, Askur and Embla (Ash and Ivy).

   12) HEIMDALLUR, THE ORIGINATOR OF CULTURE

   The descendants of Askur and Embla led a dreary, culture-less life.
   But one day a boat drifted towards their shores, and in the boat
   a little boy slept, lying on a sheaf of corn, surrounded by all
   manner of treasures and tools. The boy was none other than Heimdallur,
   sent by the Gods. The humans accepted him gladly, and raised him.
   He taught them to kindle the holy fire, instructed them in runic
   wisdom, taught them workmanship and handicraft, organized their
   society, and originated and stabilized the three classes of men.

   13) HEIMDALLUR, FIRST ANCESTOR  

   Heimdallur lived long as a man among men, and the age of his rulership
   was a golden age of peace and prosperity. When he died, his boat
   returned to take him back. The sorrowing humans laid his corpse in
   the boat, and surrounded it with his treasures and weapons. The boat
   then sailed back to Vanaheimur, where Heimdallur was stripped of his
   aged human shape, regained his eternal youth and was taken into Ásgarđur.

   14) SKJÖLDUR/BORGARR, SECOND ANCESTOR

   He became ruler of Aurvanga-land after Heimdallur. In the golden age of
   Middle-Earth men multiplied and migrated as far as Svarinshaugur (Svarin's
   Mound) in Svíţjóđ (Sweden). In the northern settlements Ívaldi (Svigđir)
   became a ruler of men.

   (go to 68)

   III. SWITCH FROM PEACE TO WAR    

   15) MAGIC RUNES AND THE FIRST BURNING OF GULLVEIG

   The clan of the Frost-Giants, Ýmir's foot-brood living in Niflhel and
   Jötunheimur, passionately hated mankind, which the Gods created and
   protected. They also hated the holy rune-poems, which Óđinn learned
   from Mímir, and all the benevolent knowledge that Heimdallur brought
   mankind. The purpose of the Giants is to bring the world to ruin,
   and recreate the chaotic anti-existence of Ginnungagap, out of which
   they were born. Gullveig and Loki were their secret agents in Ásgarđur.
   Gullveig devised a perversion of the lore of Heimdallur, the evil
   sorcery (seiđur) and powerful black magic runes. In Ásgarđur she was
   one of Freyja's handmaidens, and she actually tried to convert the
   Goddess of Love over to her unique type of evil sorcery. Fortunately
   the gods found out, and judged Gullveig to be burned to death. When
   the holy white fire of the Gods touched Gullveig, it became
   contaminated by her vileness, choked by smoke, so that it was not
   powerful enough to burn her heart.

   16) BIRTH OF MIĐGARĐSORMUR (The Serpent of Middle-Earth)

   Loki found and swallowed the half-burnt heart of Gullveig, became
   pregnant and bore Miđgarđsormur, whom he threw into the ocean.
   Miđgarđsormur grows in direct proportion to the evil in the world.

   17) ŢÓRR'S FIRST GIANT-SLAYING

   Vingnir and Hlóra planned to betray Óđinn's trust and kill Ţórr,
   being awed by his overwhelming size and power, which grew every day.
   But Ţórr realized their intentions, and killed the pair, while still
   a lad. He returned to Ásgarđur and took with him the magical stone-
   hammer, which belonged to Vingnir. At that time the clan of giants
   living in Jötunheimur was quite numerous, and they were divided into
   many powerful families (ćttir).
 
   (Of interest: Please note that this is the very first breaking of the covenant
   on behalf of the Gods. But see above - Gullveig's crime and execution.
   Ideally, it can be argued forever who is the REAL covenant-breaker,
   since Vingir's and Hlóra's sin is only an intent to kill, but Ţórr
   actually kills. This kind of ethical conundrum is inherent throughout
   the rest of the Rydberg Edda. Re: Gullveig's sin - it seems obvious
   that Freyja was credulous enough to at least test Gullveig's methods,
   thus sexual magic. So Gullveig's crime is theoretical, whereas Freyja
   makes it practical. Interesting?)

   18) STRONGHOLD OF THE GODS AT ÉLIVOGAR 

   (Please note Élivogar is usually spoken of as a river, but it
   is really a narrow stretch of ocean separating Miđgarđur proper
   from Jötunheimur in the north. This arrangement exactly parallels
   the Underworld geography: Niflhel is separated from Hel proper by
   mountains (and perhaps a narrow stretch of underworld ocean as well).
   There are passages connecting Jötunheimur to Niflhel. Jötunheimur
   contains the Giants that survived the blood-flood, Niflhel the
   souls of the Giants that drowned. Thus: Jötunheimar (plural), meaning
   Jötunheimur (above) and Niflhel (below).)

   Since oaths had been broken, a Giant hostage burnt to death
   in Ásgarđur, and the inviolability of foster-parents forfeited by
   Ţórr, the original covenant of peace was no longer valid. Now the
   Gods feared an invasion of Giants into Miđgarđur. Therefore they
   built a citadel south of Élivogar, strategically placed to keep
   an eye on the Giants. This citadel (probably "Ýsetur") belonged
   to Ţórr, but he handed it over to the King of the Elves, Ívaldi,
   who ruled it with the assistance of Egill his son, and a multitude
   of Elven soldiers. Ívaldi, a ruler of Sweden and Finland, was the
   best of all spear-heroes. Egill was the foremost of archers and
   skiers. Egill's brother, Völundur, was a master of smiths
   and craftsmen, who studied under Mímir himself, and was thought to
   be an equal to Mímir's sons, if not better. Ívaldi, his sons and
   kinsmen swore oaths of allegiance to the Gods.

   19. THE SECOND BURNING OF GULLVEIG

   Gullveig was reborn in Jötunheimur, and made her way towards
   Miđgarđur, where she travelled in her new incarnation under the
   name of Heiđur. She taught her evil runes to men, trying to wean
   them away from Heimdallur's sacred runology, and did whatever she
   could to spoil mankind with her evil tricks. But as before, she was
   caught in the act, and the gods deemed that she should burn at the
   stake. And so she did, but again Loki ate her heart and spawned the
   Fenrisúlfur (Fenris-Wolf), a monster which Loki actually convinced 
   the gods to raise as a pet in Ásgarđur.

   (In FG Gullveig's second burning is placed differently. But
   chronology is the least of our worries. For the chron(olog)ically
   interested, let me state that according to FG section 46 should
   be replaced by this (19).)

   20) GIANTS WORRY ABOUT ŢÓRR'S STRENGTH

   The Giants with Loki devised a scheme in order to find out how
   strong Ţórr really was, how dangerous an opponent he might prove to 
   be. Loki tricked Ţórr into visiting the Giant Fjalarr, and even
   accompanied him. On their way and in Fjalarr's hall they were tricked
   and deluded by Fjalarr, who was strong in magic. The competitions
   Ţórr participated in all ended with his defeat, but these were just
   magical delusions devised by Fjalarr. Actually Ţórr had shown an
   awesome power, much feared by the Giants.

   21) ŢJÁLFI AND SVIPDAGUR

   Egill and his wife Gróa adopted an orphan boy named Ţjálfi, who
   grew up in Egill's citadel, proving himself as a clever and hardy
   warrior. Later Gróa bore Egill a child, a radiantly handsome boy,
   whose name is Svipdagur (Óđur). (See also 75)

   22) ŢÓRR AND HYMIR.

   The Giant Hymir owned the bull Himinhrjótur. He also had a huge
   brewing-kettle, which was necessary to the Gods, because of the
   mead that Ćgir, the Ocean-Giant, made for them. Ţórr went to Hymir,
   accompanied by Týrr, who was Hymir's foster-son. Ţórr left his goats
   with Egill in Ýsetur, and crossed Élivogar into Jötunheimur. Hymir
   invited Ţórr to go fish with him, since both had experience fishing
   for whales. Ţórr tore the head off Himinhrjótur for bait. Miđgarđs-
   ormur (The World Serpent) took the bait. Hymir had to cut the
   fishing-line, in order to save the two of them from the serpent's
   jaws, but the huge serpent insisted until Ţórr wielded his hammer,
   leaving a huge dent in Miđgarđsormur's head. Hymir was impressed.
   Returning to Hymir's abode, Ţórr's might was still to be tested,
   but he just stole Hymir's kettle and escaped with Týrr. Hymir's
   kinsmen followed, but the Ćsir slaughtered them. Thus Hymir's
   kettle entered Ásgarđur.

   23) LOKI AND ŢJÁLFI.

   While Ţórr was at Hymir's, Loki came to Egill's citadel and tricked
   Ţjálfi into breaking a leg of one of Ţórr's goats, last night's
   dinner. However Ţórr forgave Ţjálfi, and made him a foster-son.

   IV a. AGE OF WAR - BEFORE FIMBUL-WINTER

   24) ŢÓRR GOES TO GEIRRÖĐARGARĐAR

   Inescapably, Gods and Giants were now at war. Egill could only just
   manage to defend the Élivogar straits. The daughters of Geirröđur
   devised a scheme with Loki in order to undermine the strength of
   Egill's and Ţjálfi's defenses, and the vigilance of their Elven
   warriors. Loki tricked Ţórr into a campaign against the giant
   Geirröđur. Ţórr, Egill, Ţjálfi and their legions entered Jötun-
   heimur. They were ambushed, and Egill and his champions were almost
   drowned at the Élivogar ford. After a battle with the Giants inside
   the stony halls of Geirröđur, Ţórr and the Elves slaughtered Geir-
   röđur and all his clan.

   25) THE THEFT OF ŢÓRR'S VINGNIS-HAMMER

   While travelling with Loki, Ţórr's hammer was stolen. The Giant
   Ţrymur buried it deep in the ground, and refused to part with it
   unless in exchange for the goddess Freyja. Ţórr went to Ţrymheimur
   disguised as Freyja, wearing bridal finery, carrying Brísingamen
   around his neck, accompanied by Loki disguised as a bridal maid.
   At the climax of the wedding, the hammer was ceremoniously carried
   into the hall in order to sanctify the wedding, and placed in the
   "bride's" lap. Ţórr then grabbed his hammer, and thereupon killed
   Ţrymur and all his kinsmen.

   26) THE CITY WALLS OF ÁSGARĐUR

   The age of peace was now at an end, so the Gods had to build battle-
   ments around Ásgarđur, to guard them from the sworn enemies of the
   regulated universe. The only builder available wanted Sun, Moon and
   Freyja as payment. However, he was prevented by Loki to finish the
   job on time, and thus forfeited his payment. Being a Giant he did
   not like this, so he went into a giant-tantrum, and had to be killed
   by Ţórr. Loki had metamorphed into a mare in order to seduce the
   Giant's horse, and soon after gave birth to the eight-footed steed
   of Óđinn. 

   27) LOKI CUTS SIF'S HAIR             

   Later Völundur Ívaldi's son made her a golden wig, which caught root
   and grew as normal hair.

   28) LOKI CONTRIVES COMPETITION OF MÍMIR'S AND ÍVALDI'S SONS

   (!!! This is a crux. We've had dissonances before, but this is the
   one that makes ALL THE DIFFERENCE! What happens here is going to
   resonate throughout the rest of the myth.)

   Loki devised a plot, which seemed to benefit the Gods, but was
   intended to create enmity between the Gods and the smiths of all
   nature, as well as causing a rift between the two groups of smiths.
   (i.e. Dwarves/Mímir's sons versus Elves/Ívaldi's sons.)

   Loki bet his head to Brokkur Mímir's son, that Sindri, the most
   artistic of all Mímir's sons, would not be able to craft treasures
   to beat the treasures of Ívaldi's sons: i.e. Sif's golden hair,
   the spear Gungnir, the ship Skíđblađnir. Brokkur, who liked the idea
   of beheading Loki, accepted the bet. His brother Sindri created
   the boar Slíđrugtanni for Freyr and Freyja, the ring Draupnir for
   Óđinn, and a new hammer for Ţórr, a hammer which would be impossible
   to steal, because it would always return to it's owner. The only
   possible judges in this competition would be the Gods themselves,
   after having tried out the various treasures, and passed judgement
   onto them.

   (go to 37)

   29) GIANT HRUNGNIR IN ÁSGARĐUR

   Óđinn rode his hose Sleipnir into Jötunheimur in order to meet the
   Giant Hrungnir, who claimed his horse Gullfaxi to be the best of all
   horses. Hrungnir fought verbally with Óđinn unto Ásgarđur.
   In Ásgarđur Hrungnir was politely offered a drink, but soon he 
   became abusive and started threatening his hosts. When Ţórr entered
   the hall, he regretted his brawl and started claiming the immunity
   resulting from Óđinn's invitation. Since he carried no weapon, he
   offered to fight Ţórr in a duel at Grjóttúnagarđar. Ţórr accepted.

   30) THE TRIAL OF MJÖLNIR

   Ţórr went to fight Hrungnir. He had expected Egill to accompany him,
   but when he reached Élivogar, he found out that Egill had just
   entered Jötunheimur to fight an army of Giants. Therefore he took
   the young Ţjálfi along, in order to participate in a fight of epic
   proportions. During the fight Ţórr fell to the ground, but threw his
   hammer, which crushed Hrungnir's skull into tiny pieces, whereupon
   the hammer boomeranged back to Ţórr. Ţjálfi proved his worth by
   slaying Hrungnir's golem-like servant Mökkurkálfi.

   31) ŢÓRR SAVES EGILL'S LIFE

   On their way back Ţórr and his companions were met by a violent 
   snowstorm and a freezing cold. Ţórr saved Egill from a certain death
   and carried him over the Élivogar straits from Jötunheimur to the
   citadel of the Elves.

   32) EGILL'S STAR (ÖRVANDILL'S TOE)

   During the trip Ţórr did not notice that one of Egill's toes was 
   exposed. It froze, so Ţórr broke it off and cast it up into the
   heavens, where it still stands as the star called Örvandil's Toe.

   33) GRÓA'S MAGIC CHANT

   When Ţórr brought Egill back, his wife Gróa was there waiting. She
   sang a magic runesong to cure her husband, but such was her happiness
   at seeing her husband alive that she faltered and was not able to 
   retrieve her husband's lost appendage. However she was quite happy to
   see her husband's toe transported to the heavens.

   34) THE MEAD AND THE MOON

   In Ívaldi's kingdom a well was discovered, and named Byrgir, probably
   directly connected with Mímisbrunnur, conferrring on it's imbibers a
   gift of poetic power and ecstacy. Ívaldi tried to keep this secret,
   and sent two of his children in the dark of night to empty out the
   well and bring back the mead. (Note: The two children, Hjúki and Bil,
   are perhaps better known as Jack and Jill.) Nepur the Moon-God spied
   the youngsters on their way back home with a pail full of mead, and
   abducted them and the mead. From this mead he allowed the Gods to drink
   as much as they wanted. 

   35) ÍVALDI TURNS AGAINST THE GODS

   In his fury Ívaldi ambushed Nepur as he travelled through the Under-
   world, overcame him and took back the mead, which he considered to
   be his by right. In order not to lose the mead again he gave it to
   the Giant Fjalarr for safekeeping in the deepest underground chamber
   of his rocky palace. He entered into an sworn friendship with Fjalarr,
   which involved Ívaldi's marriage to Gunnlöđ, Fjalarr's daughter.

   36) ÓĐINN VISITS FJALARR. THE SLAYING OF ÍVALDI.

   On the day before the wedding Óđinn visited Fjalarr's palace, and had
   taken upon himself the likeness of Ívaldi. He went to bed with the bride,
   and in the night he exposed his true identity to her, and with her help
   stole the mead, which he carried to Ásgarđur in the shape of an eagle.
   Meanwhile Ívaldi was slain in an ambush arranged by Fjalarr's door-
   keeper.

   37) THE GODS JUDGE IN THE BET OF LOKI AND BROKKUR.

   After witnessing the slaying of Hrungnir, the gods judged that the
   iron-hammer Mjölnir was the best of all treasures, Sindri a better
   smith than Völundur, and thus Brokkur had won the bet. Furthermore
   they supported Loki's claim that Brokkur could only have his head,
   and might not harm his neck. Thereby the Gods had offended both the
   sons of Ívaldi and the sons of Mímir. Brokkur sewed Loki's lips
   together with his brother's awl.

   38) VÖLUNDUR AND LOKI.

   Óđinn, Hćnir and Loki travelled in the wilderness. Völundur, having
   taken the shape of an eagle, carried Loki away, and forced him to
   agree to help smuggle Iđunn out of Ásgarđur with the Gods' elixir of
   eternal life. Völundur was resolved on revenge for his father's death
   and his own honour, and decided to ruin the Gods and all of their
   creation.

   39) IĐUNN ABDUCTED.

   Loki enticed Iđunn out of Ásgarđur with the elixir of life. She was now
   prisoner of the Gods' enemies.

   (go to 44, go to 67)

   40) FREYJA DISAPPEARS FROM ÁSGARĐUR.

   Loki, at Völundur's behest, devised a plot with the help of his devious
   sister Gullveig, and together they managed to abduct Freyja. Völundur
   gave Freyja to the clan of the Giant Beli.

   41) FREYR GIVEN OVER TO THE GIANTS.

   Völundur and Egill also handed Freyr, their fosterson, over to the
   same Giant-clan.

   42) NJÖRĐUR SEEKS RECONCILIATION.

   Njörđur hastened off, taking Höđur and Baldur with him, seeking out
   Ívaldi's sons. Reaching Élivogar he found that Völundur and his
   brothers had left the citadel of the Elves, leaving the place
   unguarded. Njörđur and his companions finally found the brothers in
   the northernmost wilderness of the world. An attempt at reconciliation
   totally failed, and resulted in an archers' duel between Höđur and
   Egill. Egill proved himself to be superior, but Höđur was not hurt.

   43) ÍVALDI'S SONS AS OUTLAWS

   Völundur, Egill and Slagfinnur, the third son of Ívaldi, chose to 
   become outlaws, and travelled all the way to the northernmost edge
   of the world, to Úlfdalir (Wolf-dales), where Gods never go.

   (go to 63)

   44) DÍSIR (Minor Goddesses) OF VEGETATION

   of the clan of Ívaldi left the Gods, and flew as swans to their kins-
   men in the Úlfdalir.

   (go to 67)

   45) MÍMIR'S SONS RESIGN         

   as the master-smiths of the Gods. Even so they still supported the
   order of the universe, which was now endangered by the hostility of
   Ívaldi's sons.

   46) THE THIRD BURNING OF GULLVEIG.

   It was discovered that one of Freyja's handmaidens was guilty of
   having betrayed Freyja into the hands of Giants, and that she was
   yet a new incarnation of the monstrous Gullveig. Ţórr in his rage
   attacked her with his hammer and felled her; thereupon she was burnt
   one more time. Those of her bodily remains not destructible by the
   holy fire were removed to the Underworld and buried in holy ground
   in order to render them scatheless. However Loki still managed to
   eat her heart.

   (see 19, perhaps better placed here, in which case 46 should accompany
   62, see)

   47) BROTHER BETRAYS BROTHER

   Höđur was hunting in Járnviđur (Iron-Wood) and stayed overnight in a
   cave, where a witch welcomed him, and bewitched him with a magical
   potion, so that he was tricked into swearing an oath to gain the love
   of Nanna, Baldur's betrothed. The magical potion filled Höđur's heart
   with a burning love for his brother's fiancée. When he woke up the next
   morning he was filled with shame, but nevertheless he was bound by his
   oath to betray his brother.

   48) HÖĐUR JOINS THE GIANTS.

   After Egill left the Elves' citadel at Élivogar, many Giants crossed
   the border. Höđur joined these, and organized them to do battle with
   the Gods, but was defeated. Baldur brought his repenting brother back
   to Ásgarđur.

   49) BALDUR'S DESPAIR.

   Baldur was now beset by evil dreams and frantic despair. Various
   prophecies seemed to foretell his death. Ásgarđur was depleted and
   Miđgarđur declining. Three major powers were lost to the Giants:
   Freyrr, the God of Vegetation; Freyja, the Goddess of Fertility;
   Iđunn, the Goddess of Eternal Youth. One clan of nature-smiths had
   stopped serving the Gods; the other clan were now enemies. The Dísir
   of Vegetation had joined the enemies of Ásgarđur. But while Baldur,
   the God of Peace, still lived, at least there was still hope that
   the forces of eternal winter could still be held back.

   50) ALL LIVING CREATURES        

   swore never to harm Baldur. Not even the Giants wanted him dead. But
   there were exceptions: Gullveig, Loki and Völundur the Avenger, who
   now had taken the name of Ţjazi, and deformed into a ghastliest of
   Giants.

   51) THE MISTLETOE

   In the Iron-Wood there grew a sapling, which had been overlooked when
   all the creatures swore their oath not to harm Baldur. Loki discovered
   this, found the sapling, and took it directly to the Wolf-Dales, where
   Völundur (Ţjazi) wrought from it a deadly arrow, which would never swerve
   from its mark.

   52) BALDUR'S DEATH

   After oaths of allegiance to Baldur had been sworn, the Gods made a 
   sport of shooting at Baldur, and hewing at him with all manner of
   weapons, knowing he could not be harmed. Höđur joined in the sport
   with his bow. Loki surreptiously put the deadly mistletoe-arrow into
   his quiver, knowing that Höđur was the only one of the Ćsir, who
   could possibly be suspected of wishing to harm Baldur. Höđur shot
   Baldur with the mistletoe, which looked exactly the same as his usual
   arrows, and Baldur fell dead.

   53) THE DUTY OF BLOOD-REVENGE

   is inescapable, even to the Gods, but no one could be found within
   Ásgarđur, who would slay Höđur, and thus deprive Óđinn of another
   of his sons. Thus the Gods were in danger of being unable to fulfil
   their duty of revenge.

   54) ÓĐINN'S EXCURSION TO THE UNDERWORLD

   Óđinn saddled Sleipnir and entered the Underworld from the north,
   passing through Niflhel towards the kingdoms of Mímir and Urđur.
   In Niflhel he sought out Hrossţjófur, Gullveig's brother, who made
   a prophesy that he would beget upon Rindur in the West Halls a son,
   who would be his brother's bane. A hellish giant dog, foaming with
   blood, followed Óđinn all the way to the borders of Mímir's realm.
   Óđinn sought out Mímir and asked the Ruler of the subterranean 
   Paradise to answer his burning question: Did Baldur's death mean the
   end of all creation?

   55) ÓĐINN'S EYE IN MÍMIR'S WELL.

   In exchange for an answer to this riddle, Óđinn had to sacrifice of
   himself. The answer was hidden at the bottom of the Well of Wisdom.
   Then Óđinn tore out one of his eyes, and threw it into the well,
   whereupon his eye saw the future of the world. Even so Óđinn chose
   to have Urđur confirm the vision he had seen.

   56) ÓĐINN AT GULLVEIG'S MOUND.

   Óđinn rode on, and soon he passed the place where Gullveig's bodily
   remains had been buried. Nearby a palace stood, tall and magnificent,
   which had been built by Mímir's sons. Óđinn looked in, and saw
   "benches covered with costly rings, and beautiful beds embroidered
   with gold". But the mound of Gullveig was covered with snow, even
   though winter never comes to Mímir's realm. Óđinn raised the witch
   back from the dead, but all she did was to repeat her brother's
   prophesy.

   57) THE ÁSMEGIR AND THE BREIĐABLIK OF THE UNDERWORLD.

   The palace Óđinn saw has a most important role. Mímir had already
   seen the future, and read the signs, which proved that a terrible
   fate was in store for the world. He did not want the clan of Men
   descended from Askur and Embla to become irretrievably spoilt from
   distress and sin, so he sought out two children, pure and unspoilt,
   in order to preserve them. In Miđgarđur he found Líf and Leifţrasir,
   and ordered his sons to build for them a magnificent palace in the
   land of morning-light to the east of Jörmungrund, a palace surrounded
   by the greenest of woods. The palace was also built for Baldur, whose
   fate Mímir had foreseen. Dellingur, the Elf of morning, is the gate-
   keeper of Breiđablik. The gate was built by Sindri (Dvalinn) and his
   smiths, and through it no sorrow or sin will ever pass, nor old age,
   nor illness. The two human children are nourished by the succulent
   dew which drips off the branches of Yggdrasill. So now they awaited
   the coming of Baldur, and the drink which gives new life to the dead,
   awaited him in the hall.

   58) URĐUR FORETELLS RAGNARÖK.

   Still Óđinn rode on, until he arrived at the Norns' Well. He asked
   Urđur to solve the riddle burdening his mind. Urđur answered him,
   that she knew that his eye lay deep in Mímir's Well of Wisdom, so
   he already knew the answer to all his questions. But óđinn laid all
   manner of treasures at her feet and begged for an answer. Then she
   chanted the fearsome, but somehow comforting lay, which tells of
   Ragnarök and the renewal of the world.

   59) THE PYRE OF BALDUR

   was made on his ship, Hringhorni. Óđinn carried his son in his own
   arms onto the pyre. When Nanna, Baldur's wife, witnessed this, her
   heart burst with sorrow, so that she was able to join her beloved 
   husband on the funeral pyre. Óđinn laid the ring Draupnir on Baldur's
   chest and whispered in his son's ear. What he whispered will never be
   known. The pyre was lit, and the burning ship sailed out onto
   the ocean of the heavens.

   60) ÓĐINN USES MAGIC RUNES.

   The law demanded revenge for Baldur, and Óđinn already knew that the
   avenger would be born of Rindur, the daughter of Billingur the Elf of
   evening. Rindur rejected Óđinn's advances, so he was forced to use
   magic runes in order to ravish her.

   61) BALDUR'S AVENGER.

   Rindur bore Váli to Óđinn. Váli forced his way out of his mother's 
   womb before his time, and slew Höđur while one day old, still
   irresponsible and unknowing of the grave necessity of the dire deed
   which was the only reason for his birth.

   62) CREATION OF DISEASES.

   Loki, pregnant with Gullveig's heart, bore into the world the Queen
   of Disease, named Leikin. She would soon become very busy, with the
   advent of the horrifying Fimbul-Winter, which directly followed
   Baldur's death.

   (Please note that this Leikin is identical with Snorri's Hel,
   the Queen of Hell. The real Hel is of course Urđur, the Queen of
   the southern part of the Underworld.)

   (see 46; should perhaps be moved to 110?)

   IV b. AGE OF WAR - THE FIMBUL-WINTER

   63) ÍVALDi'S SONS IN THE WOLF-DALES

   At the northernmost edge of the world, not far from one of the tunnels
   which lead down into the Underworld, Ívaldi's sons built their abode.
   Egill and Slagfinnur skied and hunted; Völundur sat alone in his great
   smithy, and cultivated his craft; but whenever he grew tired of his
   anvil, he would wield his magic wands & chant sorcerous magic-songs.

   64) VÖLUNDUR'S GREAT SORCERY

   filled the atmosphere with misty sleet and hoarfrost, thich clouds of
   rime which tumbled southward, causing snowstorms and hailshowers over
   Middle-Earth. Every day, for many years, Völundur sent forth icy winds 
   against helpless Mankind. The air was poisoned with baleful sorcery.
   Óđinn looked out from Hliđskjálf, and became aware of the source of
   the evil power in the wastes beyond Jötunheimur. He sent his wise
   ravens off to find out the truth, but their wings grew feeble and the
   blood threatened to freeze in their veins. They were forced to return
   and Óđinn was none the wiser.

   65) VÖLUNDUR'S GREATEST TREASURE

   Völundur made a great sword in the Wolf-Dales, a Sword of Revenge,
   the greatest of all weapons, into which he poured all of his craft
   and knowledge. He hardened its steel in the deadly cold eddies of
   Niflhel's rivers, and carved it with runes of certain victory.

   66) DECLINE OF THE WORLD.

   The harvests of Miđgarđur became poorer with every year that passed.
   Vegetation failed, and famine followed. On the chilly winds were
   carried evil spirits of hunger and disease, which felled both man
   and beast. The Gods appeared to be helpless; prayer and sacrifice
   were of no avail. Two huge Giant maidens, Fenja and Menja, took 
   hold of the turning-shaft of the world mill, and revolved it at
   such a terrible speed that Earth shuddered in its depths. Huge
   rocks were torn from the mill-stone and thrown up out of the ocean,
   mountains spewed fire, the mill went askew, and the heavens oblique,
   as may still be seen.

   (This may refer to the obliquity of the Ecliptic, and
   the apparently "askew" revolution of the Heavenly dome.)

   67) SWAN-MAIDENS IN THE WOLF-DALES

   Ívaldi's sons had not dwelt long the the Wolf-Dales, when they were
   visited by three maidens in the shapes of swans, who had decided to
   share their fate. Two were daughters of Ívaldi, their half-sisters:
   Iđunn, betrothed to Völundur, and Auđa who loved Slagfinnur. The
   third was Sif, their kinswoman, who brought Egill a message from
   Gróa, that she was unable to join him.

   (But properly Sif is also a daughter of Ívaldi's, and the
   brothers' half-sister.)

   68) MIGRATION FROM THE NORTH

   Hosts of Giants flocked over the Élivogar into the North of Miđgarđur.
   The smiths of nature, who formerly had blessed the land with beauty
   and fertile growth, now left it, and went all the way from Svarin's
   Mound to Aurvangaland in the south. Sindri (Dvalinn) was their
   leader. Numerous Teutonic clans lived in Svíţjóđ, and were forced by
   the atmospheric changes to move south. The Northern Swedes suffered
   first, and thereupon all the other clans. Thus one clan pushed the
   next one towards the south, fleeing the icy winter-winds of the far
   north. Behind them the lands became covered with wastes of snow and
   terrible glaciers. Delivery from cold and famine could be glimpsed
   toward the south.

   69) SKJÖLDUR FOUNDS THE TEUTONIC EMPIRE SOUTH OF THE SEA

   The multitudes flocking towards Aurvangaland grew alarmingly. The 
   now aged Skjöldur/Borgarr decided to migrate still further south,
   over the sea to the mainland of Europe. There, aided by his son
   Hálfdan (Mannus), he founded an extensive kingdom, reaching far
   south along the banks of the Rhine towards the tallest mountains on
   Middle-Earth. The Northern Swedes conquered Aurvangaland, and stayed
   there.

   70) HÁLFDAN/GRAMUR, ANCESTOR THE THIRD, FIRST OF KINGS.      

   When Skjöldur/Borgarr, the ancestor of men throughout the gold and
   bronze ages, finally passed away, his son Hálfdan became king over
   all the nations of the new Germania. He was first of the Teutonic
   leaders to receive the title of king. His father's title had been
   that of "judge".

   71) OF THE BIRTH OF HÁLFDAN.

   He was born at night during a thunderstorm, while "the sacred waters
   flowed down from Heaven's mountains". Ţórr was imminent in the night
   sky at the child's birth, so in a sense he is Hálfdan's "father".
   Urđur and her sisters were also present: they fastened a thread of
   fate under the heavens and fixed it strongly to the east and west,
   but to the north they could only fasten one strand, and prayed for
   it to hold forever. Two ravens, who witnessed the birth, remarked
   that this marked the beginning of good times for ravens and wolves.
   The boy's parents, to whom Heimdallur had taught the language of birds,
   heard this prophesy, and were saddened.

   72) HÁLFDAN AND HAMALL.

   Skjöldur/Borgarr sent Hálfdan to be fostered by his friend Hagall.
   This Hagall had a son named Hamall, clan-father of the Amelungs.
   Hálfdan and Hamall were the handsomest of all men's sons, and looked
   alike enough to be brothers. They became sworn friends.

   73) HÁLFDAN'S ATTRIBUTES.

   Hálfdan was not only blessed with physical beauty, but great physical
   and mental powers as well. He was the greatest of Teutonic bards, and
   composed lays, which have passed from generation to generation for
   many ages. He was popular and generous, thirsty for adventure and
   battle. 

   74) HÁLFDAN AND GRÓA.

   Once Hálfdan and Hamall accompanied Ţórr to the north of Sweden, in
   order to fight the Giants, who now lived there. While riding through
   a forest, they spied Gróa and her handmaidens, who were on their way
   to bathe in a lake in the woods. Hálfdan forced Gróa to accompany him
   and made her his wife. Gróa's father was slain in battle with Hálfdan.

   (This actually takes place before 44 & 67, being the reason why
   Gróa can't join Egill in the Wolf-Dales.)

   75) GRÓA'S SONS: SVIPDAGUR OG GUTTORMUR.

   Gróa bore Egil's son in Hálfan's palace, and named him Svipdagur (Óđur,
   see 21). Later she bore Guttormur, Hálfdan's son.

   76) GRÓA'S DEPARTURE AND DEATH.

   Gróa could neither bear to be mother to the son of her father's slayer,
   nor to see Egill's son be raised in Hálfdan's palace. She knew that he
   would sooner or later have to avenge himself upon his foster-father.
   Finally Hálfdan sent Gróa and Svipdagur away. They returned to the
   north of Sweden, where Gróa awaited Egill's return. She wasted away
   from longing and sorrow, and finally died. On her death-bed she asked
   of her son that if ever in sore need, he must visit his mother's howe
   and call upon her advice.

   77) THE SWAN MAIDENS AND VÖLUNDUR'S BROTHERS LEAVE THE WOLF-DALES

   At the beginning of their eighth year in the Wolf-Dales, the Swan
   Maidens grew sorrowful with longing for their home, reassumed their
   Swan-shapes and flew away. Egill and Slagfinnur left Völundur in order
   to seek them.

   78) ULLUR.
  
   Egill was accompanied by the boy Ullur, his son by Sif, who had been
   born in the Wolf-Dales, and learnt there from his father all manner of
   skills.

   79) VÖLUNDUR BOUND AND DEPRIVED OF HIS SWORD.           

   Mímir, the guardian of the World Tree, had until now kept away from
   the Gods' striving to save the world order from the powers of 
   destruction. When Völundur had finished his sword, Mímir saw that
   the Gods might never succeed. He then left the Underworld, accompanied
   by his wife, who is the mother of the Dísir of Night, and the Njárar, who
   are his kinsmen. He went all the way up to the Wolf-Dales, where he
   came upon Völundur sleeping, and bound him fast with his magical bonds.
   He confiscated the sword of revenge, brought Völundur down into
   the Underworld, and imprisoned him in a strong dungeon on an island
   in the middle of a lake. Mímir's queen ordered Völundur's knee-tendons
   to be cut, expecting terrible misfortune if ever Völundur escaped.

   80) THE HIDING OF THE SWORD OF REVENGE

   Mímir gave the sword into his queen's keeping. She hid it away inside
   the trunk of the World Tree itself, where it lay magically locked
   within the nine locks of its growth rings.

   81) VÖLUNDUR AND BÖĐVILDUR.

   Völundur murdered two young sons of Mímir, who, heedless of their
   father's command, had rowed out to Völundur's island in order to
   view his treasures. From their skulls and eye-balls he crafted
   precious treasures, which he gave to their parents and their sister
   Böđvildur. Böđvildur secretly went to the island, where Völundur
   gave here a magic potion, and lay with her.

   82) VÖLUNDUR ENSURES BLOOD-REVENGE AND FLEES.

   Völundur had secretly crafted for himself the shape of an eagle, in
   which he now flew to Mímir's palace. He promised to tell Mímir what
   had become of his sons, if Mímir would promise him never to harm his
   child's mother, whoever she was. Mímir accepted this, whereupon
   Völundur reavealed his horrible misdeed, and flew away. Böđvildur
   bore his son, who was named Viđga.

   83) VIĐGA, THE SON OF VÖLUNDUR.

   Thus it came about that a sworn enemy of the Gods and their creation
   was raised in the palace of Mímir and his queen, protected by the very
   clan which guards over and takes care of the World Tree, a clan 
   connected to the Gods by ancient oaths of friendship. Viđga was heir
   to the sword of vengeance, and bound by blood to avenge his father, 
   should he lose his battle with the Gods. But only by reclaiming the
   sword would he be able to do this.

   84) VÖLUNDUR AND IĐUNN IN ŢRYMHEIMUR.

   Völundur found Iđunn his betrothed again, and together they barricaded
   themselves inside a mountain in Ţrymheimur. Disabled in body, bereft
   of his sword, unfit to do battle with the Gods, Völundur could still
   go on laying Miđgarđur waste with his sorcery and magic songs. Further-
   more, as the Gods' elixir of eternal life was still in Iđunn's keeping
   the Gods were bound to fail sooner or later. Time alone would show how:
   either by the ravages of old age, or the sword of revenge in the hands
   of Völundur's son.

   IV c. AGE OF WAR - THE END OF FIMBUL-WINTER

   85) IĐUNN RETURNS TO ÁSGARĐUR

   In order to please the Gods and avenge himself upon Völundur, Loki
   offered to recall Iđunn to Ásgarđur, since he had found the place
   where Völundur hid away. He borrowed Freyja's falcon-shape, and 
   flew towards Ţrymheimur, where he managed to sneak into the mountain
   while Völundur was out hunting. He turned Iđunn into an apple, and
   flew away with her in his claws.

   86) THE DEATH OF VÖLUNDUR

   When Völundur returned and realized what had happened, he immediately
   dressed in his eagle-shape and gave chase to Loki, all the way to
   Ásgarđur, where the Gods were ready to receive these two birds. As
   soon as the falcon had entered Ásgarđur, they set fire to the magical
   river which surrounds Ásgarđur. Völundur, wounded with spears and
   arrows, flew into the fire, and crashed to the ground with burning
   wings, whereupon Ţórr slew him with his hammer.

   87) SVIPDAGUR SAVES FREYJA

   Now Egill was back with Sif, together with his sons Svipdagur and
   Ullur. One day Sif remarked to her stepson, who was both handsome
   and able, that he had now reached manhood and must do a heroic deed
   of some kind. Most of all she wanted him to save Freyja from the
   Giants. Svipdagur was not exactly willing to do this, but Sif, who
   was prescient and inspired by Urđur, made it a sacred duty of his.
   Svipdagur, suspecting his stepmother of malice, arose in the middle
   of the night, went to his mother Gróa's burial mound, begged her to
   wake up, reminded her of the promise she had given him, and told
   her of the duty Sif had demanded of him. Gróa encouraged him, and
   sang magic songs to help him on his quest. Ullur, who loved his
   brother dearly, sought permission from his mother to accompany him.
   Egill supplied them with strong weapons and hardy steeds.

   As they were Völundur's nephews, they were thought to be giantfriends,
   and were welcomed wherever they went in Jötunheimur. After a long and
   arduous journey, they came to the land of Beli. There they found both
   Freyr and Freyja, who at Völundur's bidding were treated as royalty
   among the Giants. Even so they were bound by magical spells, as if
   entranced. So distracted was Freyja that she hardly noticed that one
   of the Giants, name of Greppur, meant her to be his wife. The brothers
   managed to speak to Freyr, who was so ashamed of his life among the
   Giants and his helplessness against the powers of destruction, that
   he wouldn't return to Ásgarđur, but begged them to save his sister
   and take her away from the Giants. This they managed to do, but on
   their way back Svipdagur fell in love with the Goddess, who was still
   in a coma with her eyes closed. One night she disappeared. The
   brothers searched long and far for her, and finally found her, where
   she had become the shepherdess of an anchorite ogress. Svipdagur
   befriended the ogress, and asked to marry her shepherdess. While the
   ogress went to fetch her kinsmen to the wedding, the brothers escaped
   with Freyja. They made it all the way to Egill's abode. Sif was 
   overjoyed by the brothers' success, but Svipdagur was distressed by
   Freyja's indifference. Sif then made preparations for the wedding of
   Svipdagur to a maiden of some beauty, whereupon Freyja could no
   longer hide her willingness to marry him, and became his lawful wife.

   Freyja must be returned intact to Ásgarđur. Such was Sif's will and
   Svipdagur's design, even if the Gods were his kinsmen's enemies. He
   therefore placed a naked sword between himself and the bride on the
   wedding night. On the next day Sif led Freyja into Ásgarđur, whereupon
   Freyja again sank into a dreamy trance.

   88) FREYR RETURNS     

   Now the Gods learned where Freyr was to be found, and Njörđur took his
   ship Skíđblađnir to the fog-shrouded skerries, where Beli lived with
   his clan. Beli was slain by Njörđur in battle, and thus Freyr was freed.

   89) HÁLFDAN BATTLES THE WINTER ARMIES OF THE NORTH

   Hálfdan amassed a great army south of the Eystrasalt in order to
   reclaim the sacred land of the fathers, Scandia, from the forces
   of winter. The ships set sail, and the army went forth onto the
   shores of Aurvangaland. The Swedes, who had taken over the land,
   refused to budge, and called upon the northern giants to assist them.
   Hálfdan was assisted both by Gods and the sons of Mímir, so now
   Men, Gods, Nature-Smiths and Giants fought a bloody battle. The
   enemy retreated, and Hálfdan's army made its way towards the north.
   The defeated Swedes were surprised to see that in the wake of the
   army there came spring, accompanied by growing flowers and flocks
   of birds. In the air above Hálfdan's ranks there rode Valkyries
   armed with golden spears. From their horses' manes there dripped
   fertile dew-drops upon thawing fields. Sindri (Dvalinn) Mímir's son,
   who earlier had led the first migration from the north, now led his
   people back, and joined in the battle under Hálfdan's banners.

   90) ÍSAVÍG (ICE-BATTLE). MÓINSHEIĐAR (MÓIN'S MOORS).

   The most renowned battle fought in this war has been called the
   Ice-Battle (Ísavíg). Freyr, Dellingur, Dagur, Sindri and his brother
   Bjárr took part in this battle, and so did the mighty Vífill. Another
   famous battle took place at Móinsheiđar (Móin's Moors).

   91) HILDIGEIR FALLS IN BATTLE

   Hildigeir, Hálfdan's half-brother, was slain as he fought in the
   Swedes' army. Drótt had born him in Sweden, while married to the
   clan-father of the Hildings, before she became Skjöldur's wife.
   Hálfdan was born in Denmark, and knew not his brother. Hildigeir
   was slain by Hálfdan's sword, after having spared his life. As
   he lay dying he revealed himself to his brother.

   92) BATTLE ON THE WESTERN AND EASTERN SEAS

   Great battles were also fought on the Western and Eastern Seas
   against the powers of winter. Brokkur and Bjárr, Sindri's brothers,
   slew a horrible sea-monster of giant birth. Ţórr and Ţjálfi wrested
   the Danish and Swedish isles from the rule of Giants. On Hlésey
   (Lässö) Ţjálfi almost lost his life when attacked by a savage
   ogress, but Ţórr saved him.

   93) THE SCANDIAN ISLES RESETTLED      
   
   Among those who rebuilt the isles were Ţjálfi, Vífill and Véseti.
   Ţjálfi settled on Gotland, which heretofore had sunk into the
   ocean at sundown and re-emerged at sunrise. Ţjálfi encircled the
   island with sacred fire, and thus stabilized it. Vífill settled
   on Áland, Véseti on Bornholm.

   94) FINAL BATTLE AT SVARIN'S MOUND. EGILL SLAIN. SVIPDAGUR PRISONER.

   Finally Hálfdan made his way north to Svarin's Mound where the
   migration had started at the beginning of the Fimbul-Winter. There
   the final battle was fought. Egill and Svipdagur joined the army
   of the North-Swedes. On the night before the final battle, under 
   the cloak of night, Egill secretly sought out Egill's tents, 
   surprised him and slew him with his club. On the battle-field
   Svipdagur was taken prisoner.

   95) HÁLFDAN, HIGH KING OF THE TEUTONIC PEOPLES

   Now even the Swedes bowed to Hálfdan's rule, and resettled the lands
   where they had dwelt before Fimbul-Winter laid it waste. The defeat
   of the powers of winter was now complete and final, or so it seemed.
   But the story was not over yet.

   IV d. AGE OF WAR - SVIPDAGUR AND THE SWORD OF REVENGE

   96) HÁLFDAN AND SVIPDAGUR

   Hálfdan offered to make peace with his stepson and promised to make
   him a powerful king over men. Svipdagur was furious, and refused
   to accept bribery from a man who had raped his mother, slain his
   maternal grandfather and murdered his father. If Hálfdan wouldn't
   kill him now, he swore to kill Hálfdan later. Hálfdan tied his 
   stepson to a tree in the middle of a wild forest, and left his fate 
   to a higher power.

   97) SVIPDAGUR AND MÁNI (THE MOON GOD)

   Svipdagur freed himself from the bonds with the help of the magic
   spells, which Gróa had taught him. Overcome by despair he roamed the
   woods in the moonlight. Máni spoke to him, and told him not to 
   despair: In the Underworld "Sinmara" kept his uncle's magical sword
   hidden inside the World Tree itself. If he could fetch it, victory
   would be his. This Sinmara was burdened with sorrow, and if Svipdagur
   could lighten her burden, she would give him the sword. In order to
   free her from sorrow, he would have to bring her a sickle, which
   could cut a certain one of the threads of Urđur's fate. Máni also
   told Svipdagur where he would find the entrance to the tunnel leading
   down into the Underworld, and how to get there. When Máni had spoken,
   a silver sickle fell to the earth at Svipdagur's feet. He seized the
   sickle, and began his journey.

   98) SVIPDAGUR OBTAINS THE SWORD

   After a dangerous journey north over snowy mountains and barren
   wastes, Svipdagur found the entrance to the Underworld. After
   fighting the Njárr who guarded the gate, he entered the dark tunnel,
   and finally emerged in Niflhel. He boldly made his way through the
   terrors of Niflhel, climbed the Mountains of Hvergelmir, saw the
   World Mill turning, and finally came down on the other side into
   Mímir's Kingdom, where he made his way towards the palace of Night
   and her dark Dísir. He was welcomed there by the sorrowful Queen of
   Mímir and her daughter Böđvildur, and there he saw the boy Viđga, 
   the son of his uncle Völundur. He offered to give the Queen Máni's
   silver sickle, which would enable her to cut the thread of blood
   vengeance fixed by Urđur in the name of Viđga. Svipdagur took upon
   himself the duty of avenging Völundur, whereby the Sword of Revenge
   would be rightfully his. Mímir's Queen fetched the sword from its
   hiding place, and happily exchanged it for the moon-sickle. Before
   Svipdagur returned to the upper worlds, he was allowed to look upon
   various wondrous places and things in the Underworld, among them the
   magically locked Breiđablik, where the Ásmegir (Líf and Leifţrasir)
   await by Baldur's side.

   99) SVIPDAGUR LEADER OF GIANTS

   Svipdagur now summoned to him the hosts of Jötunheimur, and made it
   known that he was now the wielder of Völundur's sword. He then led
   towards the south a huge army of Giants, which Gymir had collected.
   Soon it became known in Ásgarđur what had become of the sword.
   Óđinn himself went forth, accompanied by his sons and the Vanagods
   Heimdallur, Njörđur and Freyr, in order to assist Hálfdan to defend
   Miđgarđur.

   100) SVIPDAGUR VICTORIOUS

   A deadly battle took place, but even though the Gods were victorious
   over the Giants, Svipdagur was the real conqueror. His marvellous
   sword, bright as the sun, slew just as many men as Ţórr's hammer did
   Giants. Svipdagur fought a duel with Hálfdan. Hálfdan's mighty club
   shattered into tiny pieces, as if struck by lightning, and his byrnie
   split apart so that he received a deep wound. Ţórr then threw his
   mighty hammer against Egill's son. The hammer did no harm to Svipdagur
   and returned to Ţórr as powder. Ţórr himself was forced to retreat.
   He carried the wounded Hálfdan onto a cliff-top, wherefrom he threw
   huge boulders over Svipdagur's army. Svipdagur did not wish to wield
   his weapon against Njörđur and Freyr, so he retired from the battle.

   101) HÁLFDAN DIES. HIS SONS        

   Hálfdan's wound was fatal. He left two sons: Svipdagur's half-brother
   Guttormur son of Gróa, and an infant boy, son of Alveig, whose name
   was Haddingur.

   102) ÓTTI Í ÁSGARĐI

   It could now be said that the fate of Ásgarđur hung balanced on the
   point of Svipdagur's sword. However this formidable enemy of the Gods
   had saved Freyja from a terrible fate, and delivered her intact into
   Ásgarđur. She loved him, and longed for his return. Had he forgotten
   all about her?

   103) SVIPDAGUR IN ÁSGARĐUR

   On a spring morning a young man with a gleaming sword walked alone
   up to the gates of Ásgarđur, and beheld in wonder the golden citadel
   on green plains within. On a flowery knoll Freyja was sitting, deep
   in her secret dreams, surrounded by Eir and other Dísir. When the
   young man had exchanged words with the gate-keeper for a while, he
   revealed his name, and the magnificent gates instantly opened. The
   fierce wolf-hounds, who are trained to let no one pass, came running
   and licked his hands. The gate-keeper informed Freyja, that she had
   a visitor, who was none other than Svipdagur Egill's son. Then the
   Vanadís awoke from her slumbers and leapt to her feet. She recognized
   her loved one instantly and greeted him with a kiss.

   104) RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE GODS AND ÍVALDI'S KIN
 
   Now Svipdagur and Freyja had a lawful wedding in Ásgarđur. Iđunn
   daughter of Ívaldi married the Bard-God Bragi. Ţór married Sif.
   Njörđur took as wife Skađi daughter of Völundur. She arrived in full
   armour at the gates, where she was welcomed. She was made a Goddess
   in compensation for her father, and through the marriage she became
   one of the Vanir. Völundur's eyes were cast upon the heavens, and
   turned into stars. Thus he gained honour in the end, like his brother
   Egill long ago.

   105) FREYR RECEIVES THE SWORD OF REVENGE

   As bridal fee Svipdagur gave Völundur's sword to Freyja's clan, and
   it was decided that Freyr should be its keeper. The nature of the
   sword was that it granted unconditional victory to Völundur himself
   or his kinsmen, but eternal ruin to anybody else. With the sacred 
   bonds of marriage Ívaldi's clan was now interwoven with the Gods'
   clans forever, and the sword therefore Ásgarđur's mightiest weapon.

   106) SVIPDAGUR ATTEMPTS TO RESURRECT BALDUR

   The end of Fimbul-Winter, the defeat of the Giants and reconciliation
   with Ívaldi's clan filled Frigg with hope that fate might be reversed
   and Baldur resurrected from Hel. Svipdagur took it upon himself to
   carry her wish to the Norns, and her greetings to Baldur and Nanna.
   He rode on Sleipnir into the Underworld, and when he returned, he
   brought back greetings and gifts. Baldur returned the ring Draupnir
   to his father; Nanna sent Frigg fine clothes, and Fulla a golden
   ring. The Norns of fate had told Svipdagur, that Baldur might indeed
   return with Nanna on one condition: that no creature could be found
   that hadn't wept or wouldn't weep over Baldur's death. But soon it
   became apparent that such a creature existed: an ogress named Ţökk,
   who chanted from her mountain-cave: "Ţökk shall weep dry tears over
   Baldur's funeral pyre". It is more than likely that Ţökk was either
   of the two, Gullveig or Loki.

   IV e. AGE OF WAR - THE ĆSIR-VANIR WAR. FIRST WAR OF MEN.        

   107) FREYR PROPOSES TO GERĐUR

   One day Freyr was sitting in Hliđskjálf, and saw the giant-maiden Gerđur
   daughter of Gymir. She seemed to him the most beautiful of all maidens, 
   and he was filled with longing and sorrow, but dared not tell the other 
   gods, who worried about him. Of all the Giants Gymir was now the most 
   terrible, and a sworn enemy of Ásgarđur, and therefore a bond of matrimony
   between the Gods and Gymir would be a shameful thing indeed, and most 
   dangerous for all of creation. Nevertheless Freyr's passion became so
   overwhelming that he felt that he would die unless Gerđur become his.
   He opened his heart to Svipdagur, and it came to pass that Svipdagur
   went to Gerđur in order to propose marriage on Freyr's behalf. He took
   with him the ring Draupnir and eleven golden apples, but she would only
   accept the proposal on three conditions: that her father Gymir receive
   Völundur's sword; that Svipdagur and Freyja fetch her and accompany her
   into Ásgarđur; and that she become one of the Goddesses in Ásgarđur.

   108) THE SWORD OF REVENGE IN GYMIR'S POWER

   The Gods accepted unwillingly, and thus forfeited the certain victory,
   which the sword had ensured. The sword was a great gain for the giants,
   even if they would never be able to use it without destroying themselves.
   Gymir gave the sword into the keeping of his kinsman Eggţér, who buried
   it deep below the earth in the Iron-Wood (Járnviđur).

   109) BATTLE IN THE HALL OF GYMIR

   Svipdagur went to Gymir's hall along with Freyja. They planned to
   betray the Giants. Ţórr and Ullur rode secretly to the north, and 
   hid themselves near to Gymir's mountainous abode. Gymir told Svipdagur
   that he planned to keep Freyja, and proposed that he himself marry
   Gerđur. Thus he would regain the sword of revenge, be able to fulfil
   the blood vengeance which he had sworn, overthrow the God-powers and
   himself become Lord of the Universe. Svipdagur pretended to accept
   this, and now a double wedding was prepared. Just in time Ţórr and
   Ullur burst into the rocky hall. Svipdagur grabbed his weapons, and
   Freyja fought valiantly by her husband's side. Gymir and all his clan
   were slaughtered after a violent battle, and the Gods brought Gerđur
   into Ásgarđur.

   110) GULLVEIG EXECUTED ONCE MORE        

   At this time a giant maiden named Aurbođa was one of Freyja's hand-
   maidens. As soon as Gerđur had entered Ásgarđur, it seemed obvious
   that Aurbođa was her mother, and furthermore it was revealed that
   she was none other than the thrice-executed, thrice-burnt and thrice-
   resurrected Gullveig. When this became known, all the Gods were 
   assembled in Valhöll, and Aurbođa was present. Ţórr in his fury killed
   the giantess with his hammer, and the Ćsir pierced her with their spears
   and suspended her body in the fire.

   (go back to 15, 19, 46, 62; go forwards to 148)

   111) THE VANIR DEMAND COMPENSATION

   To the Vanir, just as to the Ćsir, Gullveig was an abomination who did
   not deserve to live, and they even suspected that her sorcery was
   responsible for Freyr's irresistible love for Gerđur. Nevertheless she
   was now Freyr's mother-in-law, and connected to the Vanir through 
   sacred marriage-bonds. Therefore it was their duty to demand compensation
   in return for her execution.

   112) FEUD BETWEEN ĆSIR AND VANIR

   Óđinn refused the Vanir's demand, stating that Gullveig had long ago
   forfeited her right to live and been sentenced to death, and that the
   Gods must carry out this sentence, whenever she was reborn. He claimed
   that the Gods could not be made to make compensation for the monstrous
   witch, who had brought the evil "seiđur" into the world. One of the
   Vanir then pointed out, that Óđinn himself had once availed himself of
   the evil runes of Gullveig.

   113) ÓĐINN BREAKS UP THE ASSEMBLY

   Furious at being reminded of this regrettable instance, Óđinn threw his
   spear over the assembled Vanir, signifying that this quarrel would not
   be settled with words or discussion, but with weapons. Thus he sundered
   the ties, which in yore had united the Ćsir and the Vanir. The Vanir
   therefore left Ásgarđur.

   114) VANIR DEMAND THE DETHRONEMENT OF ÓĐINN

   The Vanir came to the conclusion, since Óđinn and Gullveig both were
   guilty of the same crime, that Óđinn ought to step down from his throne,
   which he had thus defiled.

   115) MÍMIR'S DEATH

   Mímir tried to make peace between Ćsir and Vanir, but was slain, and it
   is thought that this was Loki's work. His head was sent to Óđinn, since
   Mímir had acted in his name. Whoever it was, that committed this dreadful
   deed, made it appear that the Vanir had slaughtered Mímir.

   116) THE HEAD OF MÍMIR

   In Óđinn's possession the head of Mímir turned into a head of gold, that
   could speak and answer his questions, and give him good and honest advice.
   Ever since Óđinn possessed Mímir's head, all his deeds have been wise and
   true.

   117) THE SEVEN SLEEPERS

   Mímir's seven eldest sons, the great primal smiths, retired after their
   father's death, tired of the world's toil, determined that now nothing
   could purify the world except the coming Ragnarök. They therefore went
   to sleep, and their sleep will last throughout ages. Night cloaks their
   hall with twilight and deep silence. The din of the World Mill and the
   eddies of Hvergelmir does not disturb their slumber. In their palace
   there are innumerable halls filled with weapons and magnificent treasures
   of their making. In one of the halls their sleeping horses await, fully
   attired for war. Mortal men, whose destiny it is to enter their palace,
   must not disturb the seven sleepers, lest they be punished with a fatal
   disease which consumes them.

   118) THE SPLITTING OF THE GODS

   With Óđinn there stayed in Ásgarđur the Gods Ţórr, Týr, Bragi, Víđarr,
   Váli and Forseti, but Skađi alone of the Goddesses. Frigg returned to
   the clan of the Vanir, and also Freyja, Freyr, Svipdagur and Ullur,
   along with all other Vanir and Álfar, except Hćnir alone, who thus
   lost all his propertis in Vanaheimur, which were taken over by Lóđurr.

   119) ÁSGARĐUR IN THE POWER OF THE VANIR

   After a long siege, the Vanir conquered Ásgarđur with their strategy.
   Njörđur's axe burst open the locks of the city gates, and the armies
   of the Vanir filled the sacred plains. The Ćsir obeyed the head of
   Mímir and left Ásgarđur, in order that none of the Gods be slain and
   thus the order of the universe endangered.

   120) ULLUR LORD OF ÁSGARĐUR

   The Vanir and the Álfar decided that one of them must overtake Óđinn's
   name and functions, in order to accept the prayers and sacrifices of
   men, who worship him. This would have to be a God, who still had no
   defined function in the order of things, and Ullur was chosen. This
   change of authority in Ásgarđur did not involve any revolutionary
   changes in the nature of religious worship, although it led to certain
   new and stricter rules of sacrifice.

   (??? This constitutional change is interesting. It is tempting to
   relate to it the otherwise inexplicable change in the runic alphabet,
   from 24 runes to 16 runes (3*8 to 2*8).

   121) MANHEIMUR.

   Manheimur is the name of the land where the Ćsir settled during their
   absence from Ásgarđur. They were not idle, but went on protecting the
   world and their special protégés.

   122) ĆSIR SUPPORT THE SONS OF HÁLFDAN

   Now that the Vanir ruled Ásgarđur, the Gods feared that Svipdagur might
   take advantage of the situation, in order to avenge himself upon the
   sons of Hálfdan, his slain enemy. Ţórr therefore found foster-fathers
   for the two brothers in Sweden the Great: Guttormur went to Hafli the
   Great, Haddingur to the mighty Vagnhöfđi. Nevertheless Guttormur had
   no reason to fear Svipdagur. They were both Gróa's sons, and when he
   learned that Svipdagur offered him a great kingdom on the banks of the
   Rhine in the west of Germania, he accepted his brother's offer and
   became king over the West-Teutons, who from his name (Gođ-Hormur)
   received the appellation of Hermiones.

   123) JÖRMUNREKUR (EORMENRIC)

   was the name that Guttormur received as High King of the West Teutons.
   
   124) SIFKA

   was the name of a man, who one day appeared in the halls of Jörmunrekur.
   He claimed to be Lord of the Baningjar. He became Jörmunrekur's trusted
   counsellor. He was none other than Loki in disguise.

   125) THE YOUTHFUL DEEDS OF HADDINGUR

   Svipdagur reluctantly decided to treat Haddingur in the same manner,
   and offered him a great kingdom, which had been his father's, but the
   boy refused to accept favours from his father's bane. Sifka/Loki sought
   Haddingur in order to kill him, so that the boy was no longer safe with
   his foster-father Vagnhöfđi. One evening there appeared a one-eyed rider
   on an eight-footed horse, who expressed polite thanks to Vagnhöfđi,
   placed the boy in his saddle, and rode with him through the air all the
   way to Manheimur. There the boy received instruction in runic wisdom
   and weaponry. Óđinn chanted to him songs of protection, and gave him
   a magic drink, Leifnislogar, which enabled him to break any bond or
   fetter with his breath. A Norn showed him the way down into the Under-
   world, where he was privileged to look upon the wonderful world of the
   blessed, and all its magical treasures.

   126) MĆRINGABORG (MAERING CITY)

   When Haddingur grew up, he was sent to a city in Miđgarđur, which name
   is Mćringaborg. On the way he was ambushed by the Baningjar, led by Loki,
   and imprisoned; but with his breath he freed himself in the night and
   escaped. Reaching Mćringaborg he found many of his father's friends, who
   had assembled there away from Svipdagur's wrath. Among them were Hamall
   and Hildibrandur (see 72). They planned a revolution among the East
   Teutonic peoples under the leadership of Haddingur.

   127) VIĐGA SON OF VÖLUNDUR

   In the midst of the preparations, a youthful hero rode into Mćringaborg.
   On his shield was painted a heraldic design, showing a smith's tongues
   and hammer. This was Viđga, the son of Völundur and Böđvildur. Being
   Svipdagur's cousin, it was his duty (he said) to fight Hálfdan's clan.
   He challenged Haddingur to single combat, was victorious, but did not
   slay his enemy but held out his hand in friendship. Thereafter he
   lingered long in the city, where he gained love and respect.

   128) HADDINGUR LEADER OF THE EAST TEUTONS

   The East Teutons were now ready to revolt. Haddingur went among them
   and was hailed as High King. Reluctantly he bid farewell to his great
   friend, Viđga, who dutifully left to take his place by the side of Gróa's
   sons, Svipdagur and Guttormur/Jörmunrekur.

   129) ŢJÓĐREKUR (THEODORIC, DIETRICH)

   is the name of Haddingur, after becoming King of the East Teutons.

   130) FIRST BATTLE OF MEN

   Svipdagur came down from Ásgarđur to Germania, and called upon the 
   Swedes and the Danes to do battle with Ţjóđrekur/Haddingur. Enormous
   warships were built in order to transport the Scandian warriors to
   the mainland, where they were united with Jörmunrekur/Gottormur's
   armies. Valkyries rode in the skies, some from Vanaheimur, others
   from Ásgarđur, still others from Manheimur. Jörmunrekur's army was
   strengthened by his foster-father Hafli, who arrived with the giant-
   maidens Fenja and Menja; Ţjóđrekur's army by Vagnhöfđi and his
   daughter Harđgreip. Svipdagur's bards made it known to his and
   Jörmunrekur's soldiers, that those who would fall in battle would
   be guaranteed a place in Freyja's hall, Sessrúmnir. Ţjóđrekur 
   promised his soldiers a place in Óđinn's palace.

   The ensuing battle was long and cruel, and every night the exhausted
   warriors could see an amazing spectacle in the night sky: a super-
   natural battle of Vanir fighting Ćsir. During the daytime, as men
   fought men, the supernatural beings were at work as well: whenever
   dark clouds and hailstorms threatened to overwhelm Haddingur's army,
   the warriors would see óđinn and Ţórr, carrying golden spear and
   thunderous hammer, coming forth to fight the foul weather. But soon
   the ultimate battle took place, and great heroic deeds were done on
   both sides; but Sifka/Loki, who had stayed well away from the main
   battle, managed to employ the Western armies in such a manner that
   Haddingur's armies were scattered. Haddingur/Ţjóđrekur was totally
   defeated. He had to flee to Manheimur along with Hamall and Hildi-
   brandur.

   131) PEACE    

   came to Miđgarđur for many years. Svipdagur's viceroys and earls ruled
   Germania for generations. Freyja bore to Svipdagur two lovely daughters,
   and a son, named Ásmundur, who became ruler of the Northern Kingdom.

   132) THE EVIL DEEDS OF SIFKA/LOKI

   Sifka still dwelt at the court of Jörmunrekur/Guttormur. With lies and
   treachery he created conflicts among the Teutonic lords. Guttormur wished
   to marry Svanhildur, the daughter of a king of the North. He sent his son
   Randver, accompanied by Sifka, to propose the marriage to her. She
   willingly accepted, and accompanied them to Guttorm's court. Sifka
   convinced Guttormur that Svanhildur had been untrue to him with his son.
   Guttormur was furious, let his own son be hanged, and Svanhildur be
   trampled to death by wild horses. Sifka also tricked Guttormor into
   executing two of his kinsmen (the Harlungs). Svanhildur's two brothers,
   Sörli and Hamđir, swore to avenge their sister's death. They were both
   slain during their attempt to kill Guttormur, but manage to wound him
   horrible, so that he suffered unto his death.

   133) HÚNASTRÍĐ (WAR OF THE HUNS)
 
   The discord between the Ćsir and the Vanir resulted in an attack of
   the Giants upon Miđgarđur. The Giants slily offered the outlawed Ćsir
   to join in the attack, but Óđinn, caring more about the welfare of 
   mankind than that of the Ćsir, warned the Vanir of the Giant's attack
   and even offered to assist them. The whole of creation was in danger,
   and all assistance was needed. The giant armies which now overflowed
   Miđgarđur, even unto Bifröst, seemed totally invincible. The Ćsir, the
   Vanir, the Elves and Men united against the Giants, and ensured victory.
   The number of Giants which fell in this battle was so huge that the
   Élivogar straits became filled with their bodies. Ever since that time
   the Giants are so drastically decimated, that they are no longer a
   threat to men, at least not until Ragnarök is at hand.

   134) RECONCILIATION BETWEEN ĆSIR AND VANIR

   Thankful for Óđinn's high-mindedness, the Vanir recalled him to
   Ásgarđur, and gave him back his throne. The peace was sealed with
   a triple agreement: the Vanir would hereafter disregard any of
   Óđinn's acts not to their liking; if Gullveig were to be born again,
   she would not be executed, but outlawed to the Ironwood; the slain
   in battle would be divided between the Ćsir and the Vanir evermore.

   135) THE SECOND BATTLE OF MEN

   In East Germania a new generation of warriors had now taken over, and
   raised anew the banners of Ţjóđrekur/Haddingur. Accompanied by Hamall
   and Hildibrandur, Haddingur again went forth as leader of the armies
   of the East. The Gods attempted to make peace, but Loki now held in
   thrall both Guttormur/Jörmunrekur and Svipdagur himself. The Gods held
   assembly and judged that Svipdagur must keep the peace and hand over
   to Haddingur his father's inheritance, but Loki's wiles had totally
   blinded Svipđdagur, so that neither the Gods' judgement nor Freyja's
   tears could sway his stubbornness. He commanded his son Ásmundur to
   gather the Swedes, the Danes and Guttormur's armies. Again there was
   war between the Teutonic nations.

   136) SVIPDAGUR DISAPPEARS

   The gods sent Svipdagur a final warning, and urged him to obey the
   decree of the Rulers of the Universe. He disregarded their bidding.
   His fleet sailed forth over the Eystrasalt, but mid-way it became
   apparent that Svipdagur had disappeared. The Gods' wrath had forced
   him to regret his hybris, so that he jumped off board into the ocean's
   depths. There he was transmogrified into a hideous monster. Humbled and
   desparate he dived unto the bottomless abyss of the ocean, in order to
   dwell there forever, hidden from the eyes of Gods and men. The Gods
   kept his fate secret from Freyja. His son Ásmundur took over the
   leadership of his armies.

   137) JÁLKUR AT ÁSMUNDUR'S COURT

   The armies of Guttormur and Ásmundur joined on the mainland. Sifka
   was present as usual. In the middle of the night a tall, one-eyed
   stranger visited Ásmundur's tent. He called himself Jálkur, and
   warned Ásmundur against fighting his uncle. Ásmundur was totally in
   Sifka's power, and would not listen to Jálkur's warnings. The one-
   eyed warrior then visited Haddingur, and had a long discussion with
   him and his right-hand man Hamall.

   138) A NEW TYPE OF BATTLE ARRAY

   Jálkur taught them a new array of battle, the wedge-shaped column,
   which ever since has been sacred to the Teutons.

   139) VAGNHÖFĐI
 
   On the next day the battle started, but Vagnhöfđi, having been delayed,
   was still missing from Haddingur's army. A one-eyed warrior, naming
   himself Kjalarr, met Vagnhöfđi on his way to the battle, took him
   upon his eight-footed steed and flew through the air towards the
   battle. When they were directly above Haddingur's army, Kjalarr put
   Vagnhöfđi down in the exact place where he was needed.

   140) HADDINGUR VICTORIOUS

   Sifka/loki was in charge of the battle arrays of Ásmundur and Guttormur,
   but the wedge-shaped column was too much for him. Óđinn's wisdom here
   conquered Loki's wiliness. Ásmundur forced his way into Haddingur's
   army, until he fell by Haddingur's blade and Vagnhöfđi's curved sword.
   Sadly Viđga Völundur's son also was slain in this battle, but some say
   that he was thrown into the sea and saved by Mímir's daughters, his
   kinswomen. Before that he had slain many hundreds of men, and only he
   could have slain Haddingur, but would not, because of their sworn bonds
   of everlasting friendship.

   141) PEACE ONCE MORE

   After Ásmundur had fallen, a white shield was borne aloft, and the
   lords of the Teutons made peace among themselves. Sifka/Loki was
   away and gone. Germania was divided between Haddingur, Guttormur and
   Ásmundur's son.

   142) ŢJÓĐREKUR/HADDINGUR

   became a kind and prosperous king. As soon as Sifka/Loki was out of
   the way, the Teutonic lords were easily reconciled. A great friendship
   was born between Haddingur and Ásmundur's son, who now ruled in Sweden.
   The latter took his own life when Haddingur's death was wrongly reported
   to him. When Haddingur heard of this tragedy, he willingly faced death
   himself.

   143) FREYJA SEEKS SVIPDAGUR

   Freyja in her sorrow went into her falcon-shape, and flew all over the
   earth in search of her lover. Finally she found him swimming in the
   seas by the skerry, which is called Singasteinn. She knew him by his
   eyes, and stayed at Singasteinn because of her love. She was wearing
   the Brísingamen, the divine of which was forever reflected in the
   ever-moving ocean; therefore Freyja is called Mardöll. The tears she
   cried over Svipdagur turned to gold, and with this gold, which is the
   purest gold in all of creation, she bought Svipdagur free from the
   Gods' wrath.

   144) THE DEATH OF SVIPDAGUR

   One day Haddingur bathed in the ocean near the skerry Singasteinn,
   fought a strange sea-monster and killed it. Immediately a beautiful 
   woman appeared to him, and revealed to him that he had slain one of
   the Vanir, and therefore had to pay compensation to Freyr in order not
   to call upon himself the wrath of the Vanir. Haddingur at once realized
   that he had killed none other than Svipdagur himself, and rejoiced in
   the finalization of revenge for his father. Nevertheless he paid the
   recompensation demanded, and thereby closed a vicious circle of ancient
   blood revenge, and strengthened his ties of friendship to all the
   descendants of Svipdagur.

   145) BATTLE OVER THE BRÍSINGAMEN

   As Freyja appeared to Haddingur's eyes, the Brísingamen was lying
   unprotected on the Singasteinn skerry. A seal crawled onto the skerry:
   this was Loki, who lusted for the Brísingamen. The Gods were now
   seeking after him high and low, and the Brísingamen was the only
   treasure that they would accept in exchange for his life. But another
   seal crawled upon the skerry and attacked him, and when Loki looked
   into his eyes, he saw that it was Heimdallur himself. Loki then jumped
   into the sea and escaped, but Heimdallur brought Brísingamen back to
   Ásgarđur. There now sits Svipdagur among the Einherjar, and Freyja
   enjoys limitless happiness with him.

   146) LOKI IMPRISONED

   Finally the Gods caught Loki in Fránangursfoss (Franangur's Force),
   where he lived disguised as a salmon. They placed him in a cavern
   on the islet Lyngvi in the midst of the Sea of Ámsvartnir. Sigyn, the
   lawful wife of Loki but most unlike him, asked of the Gods that she
   might share his fate. In the ghastly cavern Loki rests upon three
   sharp edges of rock, with a sword-point penetrating his back. His
   fetters are twisted from the entrails of a wolf, Loki's son. A horrid
   serpent hangs above his face, dripping venom. The hair on Loki's head
   grows into noxious needles and piercing spikes.

   147) THE FETTERING OF FENRIR

   Fenrir, Loki's offspring, was imprisoned, also on the islet of Lyngvi.
   There Týr lost his right hand.

   148) GULLVEIG FINALLY OUTLAWED

   Gullveig, reborn as Angurbođa, was banished to the Ironwood, and
   magically bound to stay there until Ragnarök. Her wolfen offspring
   and her brother Loki accompanied her. There she stays, with Eggţér,
   the guardian of Völundur's sword of revenge.

   V. HISTORICAL TIME

   149) DECLINE OF THE WORLD

   Even if the originators of evil have been bound fast, and Gods still
   walk among men, the seeds of wickedness sown by Gullveig and Loki into
   men's minds still bear fruit. The World Tree, bereft of the care of
   Mímir and the goodness of his sons, grows old, and mankind degenerates.
   "Brothers will fight and be each other's banes; cousins will betray one
   another; men do suffer, whoredom is rampant; it is the age of the axe, the
   age of war, the age of cloven shields; the age of storm, the age of 
   wolves, ere the world founders."

   VI. RAGNARÖK (DESTRUCTION OF THE GODS)

   150) FOREBODINGS

   The light and heat of the sun lessens year by year. The powers that be
   lose control over the winds, and through the whine of storms can be
   heard the howling of the Fenrir wolf from the Gnipa cavern. From
   Járnviđur the wolf-giant Hati comes, and terrorizes Miđgarđur along
   with his wolf-kin. Great battles occur all over the world, and the
   lords' abodes become red with blood. The dead are too many; they can
   not all be buried. The hungry wolves fight over their dead bodies,
   before Niđhöggur, the dragon of decomposition, claims them.

   151) MANKIND GOES UNDER

   A second Fimbul-Winter freezes Miđgarđur. The Wolf Hati eats the Moon.
   The descendants of Askur and Embla are slain by sword, disease, cold
   and hunger.

   152) THE FINAL BATTLE

   The Giant Eggţér sits on his howe in the Ironwood, happily strumming
   his harp of storms. He calls upon the Fire Giant Fjalarr, who comes
   in the guise of a crimson cock, crows loudly, and accepts Völundur's
   sword from Eggţér's keeping. Fjalarr returns to the Surtur's Sunken
   Dales (Surt's Sökkdalir), where the fires of destruction are waiting
   to burst forth, and hands the sword over to Surtur his father. Ygg-
   drasill, the World Tree, trembles from root to crown, and the Gjallar-
   horn, which until now has rested in the shadows underneath the tree,
   jumps into Heimdallur's grasp. He blows the horn with all his might,
   and it reverberates throughout the universe. The sons of Mímir rise
   from their eternal sleep in order to do battle against the ultimate
   evil. The dwarves stand "groaning in front of their stone doors".
   Whichever monsters housed by woods and mountains rush forth over the
   lands of men. The peaceful denizens of the blessed realms of the
   Underworld are filled with fear. The trembling of Yggdrasill loosens
   the bonds and fetters of the Lyngvi prisoners: Loki, Fenrir and other
   sons of destruction step onto Naglfar, the ship of Doom. Loki steers
   the ship towards Nástrendur, in order to take aboard the cursed ones,
   and then he sets sail towards the Ironwood. All the Giants of Jötun-
   heimur assemble under the leadership of Hrymur. The ocean erupts and
   overflows the lands of men, because Miđgarđsormur grows gigantically
   strong and thrashes about.
   
   Óđinn has spoken to Mímir's head for the very last time. At the thing-
   stead of the Gods the Ćsir, Vanir, Valkyries and Einherjar prepare to
   do battle. Óđinn and his sons go forth against the Frost-Giants. The
   Vanir and the Einherjar of Sessrúmnir will fight Surtur and Suttungs-
   synir. Njörđur has retired to Vanaheimur, but Freyr chooses to stay
   in order to fight Surtur, in recompense for the folly that caused him
   to hand over the sword of revenge to the giants.
 
   The southern part of Bifröst collapses from the sheer weight of the
   warriors, but even if having to swim through the ocean of air the
   Vanir warriors finally make it to the plain of Óskópnir. The final
   battle will be fought along Jörmungrund's outer periphery, where
   Óskópnir and Vígríđur unite into a single battle-field. In the North
   the horizon is endarkened with hosts of Frost-Giants, screaming their
   battle-songs from beneath the shields. The East grows black with the
   appearance of the monsters which come out of Járnviđur. To the South
   the sky grows crimson, as Surtur and his Fire-Giants burst forth. In
   Surtur's grasp the Sword of Revenge blazes, adding a blood red colour
   to the twilight of the whole world.

   From the four corners of the world, the multiple armies attack each
   other. Týrr, the one-handed Áss, slays Hati, but falls dead from his
   horse's saddle, pierced with a fatal wound. Heimdallur rushes forth
   against Loki and beheads him with his sword; but Loki's head, bristling
   with poisonous spikes, bounds back penetrating the pure God's breast.
   As the God of sacred fire falls dead, the sun goes out and the stars
   fall from the heavens. Óđinn rides against Fenrisúlfur, but is over-
   come by the poisonous fumes from the wolf's jaws and swallowed by
   the monster. Víđarr, the silent Áss, avenges his father. With one
   of his feet (wearing a magical shoe) he opens up the jaws of the
   Fenrir monster and with his sword pierces its heart. Miđgarđsormur
   has just reared his head, looking for Ţórr. The God of Thunder wields
   his hammer, splitting the dragon's head, but after stepping away nine
   feet he falls dead from the poison spewed from the monster's jaws.
   Freyr rushes at Surtur, and is felled by Völundur's sword. Now the
   sky splits, and the mountains burst open with the fiery lava hitherto
   held in rein. Fire envelopes the field of battle, the armies are
   devoured and the blazing heat burns to cinders all of creation, above
   as below. Through the fire and smoke of Ragnarök there ride the sons
   of the Gods, Víđarr, Váli, Móđi and Magni, down unto Mímir's grove,
   where death and destruction can never reach.

   VII. RENEWAL OF THE WORLD

   153) A NEW EARTH ARISES

   The sin-defiled earth sinks into the sea and is dissolved. Slowly the
   flames go out, and in purified air, underneath a higher heaven, a new
   earth arises out of the ocean, the primal earth of Mímir and Urđur, the
   world of the three wells, where the grass is ever green and the flowers
   never die, that world where Hoddmímisholt and Breiđablik will remain
   forever. There live Baldur, Nanna and Höđur, as well as Líf and Leif-
   ţrasir, who are the parents of a new mankind. Glittering waterfalls
   tumble off the mountains of Niđafjöll, and overhead the eagles swarm,
   and all manner of creatures come forth, as planned by Mímir in days of
   yore. Unsown fields will bring forth corn, and righteous children of
   men will settle upon the earth and enjoy its fruits again and again
   underneath the golden roofs of Gimlé, which will remain forever, more
   beautiful than the sun.

   154) BALDUR WILL RETURN

   There the Gods will assemble once again at Iđavellir. Hćnir, Víđarr,
   Váli, Móđi and Magni will come together and surround Baldur, Nanna and
   Höđur. Baldur and Höđur will rebuild their father's house together. As
   a sign of things to come, they will find in the grass that golden 
   chessboard, which was owned by the Gods of yore.